Genetic Variation of Harmal (Peganum Harmala L. & Rhazya Stricta Decne) Based on Polymorphism in Protein Profile, Soil Analysis and Internode Anatomy

Magda Elsayed Abd-Elgawad, Modhi Obaidan Alotaibi

Abstract

The vernacular name 'harmal' is applied to Peganum harmala L. and another noxious weed Rhazya stricta Decne. The study aimed to clarify the genetic relationships among different populations of harmal by employing ecological, anatomical characters and a pattern of leaf protein analysis. The soil and plant samples were collected from three regions of Saudi Arabia for each species. Soil texture of the harmal populations was characterized by loamy sand and sandy. Soil type had a significant effect on the internode anatomical characters of the soil textures of both hamal populations. The anatomical characters were observed in the cuticle layer on the stem. Similarly, compact epidermis, wide cortex and many water storing tissues were observed. In the present study, it was also observed that plants have numerous cortical cells to store large amount of water, so as to fight against the dry environment. This interaction between the soil type and the plant anatomical characters was found to be well adapted to the environment of different habitats. The sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of pattern profiles showed limited variations between the two species of harmal, which indicated the genetic similarity among populations of both species at different habitats. These variations were considered as successful adaptations leading to tolerance.

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