Biofabrication of Gold Nanoparticles Using Cressa cretica Leaf Extract and Evaluation of Catalytic and Antibacterial Efficacy
Biofabrication of nanoparticles using plant sources is considered the most vital method for nanoparticle syntheses, as the use of plant materials not only makes the process eco-friendly but also its abundance makes it less expensive. In this study, we aimed to develop a rapid and simple procedure for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous Cressa cretica leaf extract as a reducing agent as well as a capping agent. The characteristics of biofabricated gold nanoparticles were examined using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). As the results, the biofabricated gold nanoparticles were of hexagonal, pentagonal, spherical and rod shapes with 15-22 nm in size. FTIR studies disclosed that hydroxyl, amide and amine groups of Cressa cretica leaf broth were liable for the formation and stabilization of the gold nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of the gold nanoparticles against human pathogens showed significant zones of inhibition. It confirmed that the biofabricated gold nanoparticles have great promise as an antibacterial agent. The biofabricated gold nanoparticles were used as catalysts in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol using sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity studies exhibited that the biofabricated gold nanoparticles had prominent catalytic activity. Furthermore, this green biofabric approach is a fast and easy alternative to chemical synthesis.