Effects of Glucose, Metformin, and Protein on Formation of Flower-like Nanocomposites of Struvite in Infected Artificial Urine Medium by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): New Report

Nadia Asadi, Mojtaba Taran, Maryam Rad, Mehran Alavi


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the reason for 15-70% of urinary stone disease (USD). Many diabetic patients suffer from USD resulting from bacterial infections by multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300. These bacteria can enhance struvite stones’ formation in diabetic patients with UTIs. In this regard, hyperglycemia, proteinuria, and using of metformin drug may be important factors. Three parameters including glucose, metformin, and protein with their three levels of concentrations were determined by experimental design of Taguchi method to obtain optimized formation of struvite stones. Artificial urine medium was utilized for simulation of natural human urine. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) techniques were applied for evaluation of morphology and elemental compositions of formed calcium phosphate. This study showed highest concentration of struvite stones (0.512 g/L) under interaction conditions of 3×2×2 levels respectively for glucose, metformin, and protein. Results of SEM and EDAX analyses demonstrated clumped crystallite property and flower-like nanocomposites (NCs) of struvite stones with contribution of calcium (160.8) and phosphate (131.4) elements. It may be concluded from this investigation that therapy of MDR bacteria, hyperglycemia, and proteinuria can decrease urinary stone formation in diabetic patients by having UTIs. 

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Nano Biomedicine and Engineering.

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