Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Critical Review of the Literature and Possible Underlying Mechanisms
Background: Over the last decades, the exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has increased due to the wide application in industry, food adduct, medicine, cosmetic products, etc. Literature review showed that the TiO2 NPs exert toxic effects on several organs.
Methods: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE and the other databases with the following keywords, “titanium dioxide nanoparticle”, “TiO2 NPs”, “myocardial infarction”, “endothelial”, “blood pressure”, “heart” and “cardiovascular”, and reviewed the literature by focusing on the toxic effects of TiO2 NPs on the cardiovascular system, and possible underlying mechanism.
Results: The toxic effects of TiO2 NPs on the cardiovascular system are controversial but some possible mechanisms were proposed. TiO2 NPs and nanoparticle-derived titanium induce cardiac injury, endothelial dysfunction and increase blood pressure and heart rate. These effects are mediated via systemic or local oxidative stress and inflammation.
Conclusion: The TiO2 NPs toxicity is dependent on cell type and particle characteristic, and the controversial results may be due to these variables. However, a growing body of evidence confirmed the possible TiO2 NPs toxicity on the cardiovascular system.PDF