The Application of Lateral Flow Immunoassay in Point of Care Testing: A Review

Kan Wang, Weijian Qin, Yafei Hou, Kun Xiao, Wenqiang Yan

Abstract

Point-of-care testing (POCT) is essential for providing a rapid diagnostic result in a prompt on-site diagnosis and treatment. A quick analysis time and a high sensitivity, with a sample-to-answer format, are the most important features for current POCT diagnostic systems. This review covers recent advances in POCT technologies with an emphasis on demonstrated and commercially available POCT diagnostic systems with laboratory quality using lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). The system includes the integration of nanoparticles (NPs) in lateral flow test strips (LFTSs) and the mechanism through which particles improve the analytical performance of the fabricated strips. Several examples of NP-based LFTSs were selected to illustrate novel concepts or devices with promising applications as screening tools and superior alternatives to existing conventional strategies in clinical analysis, food safety, and environmental monitoring. In each analyte category, detection methods, configuration of LFIA modules, and advantages of POCT systems are reviewed and discussed along with future prospects. This review also discusses novel signal-enhancement strategies, optimal reader systems, and multiplex design prototypes, which have been employed for highly sensitive multiplex assay of LFTSs.

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Nano Biomedicine and Engineering.

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